BUDAPEST MEMORANDUM

on Security Assurances was signed on 5 December 1994.
It was done in connection with Ukraine’s accession to Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and it provides security assurances by United States of America, Russian Federation, and United Kingdom. signatories promised to:

• Respect independence and sovereignty and existing borders of Ukraine in accordance with principles of Helsinki Final Act (1975);
• Refrain from threat or use of force against territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine, except in self-defence or otherwise in accordance with United Nations Charter;
• Refrain from using economic coercion to subordinate Ukraine to their own interests;
• Seek immediate United Nations Security Council action to provide assistance to Ukraine, if it becomes a victim of an act of aggression or an object of a threat of aggression in which nuclear weapons are used;
• Not to use nuclear weapons against Ukraine, except in self-defence;
• Consult with one another if questions arise regarding these commitments.

cfr.org - Presidents of Ukraine, Russian Federation and United States of America, and Prime Minister of United Kingdom signed three memorandums (UN Document A/49/765) on December 5, 1994, with accession of Ukraine to Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Through this agreement, these countries (later to include China and France in individual statements) gave national security assurances to Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine. Joint Declaration by Russian Federation and United States of America of December 4, 2009 confirmed their commitment.

armscontrol.org - Featured Fact Sheets
- Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine inherited nuclear Soviet Union’s collapse, returned them to Russia and joined NPT as non-nuclear-weapon:

Ukraine Nuclear Weapons and Security:

armscontrol.org - Assurances At a Glance
At time of Ukraine’s independence from Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine held third largest nuclear arsenal in world, including an estimated 1,800 strategic warheads, 176 long-range ballistic missiles, and 42 strategic bombers
. By 1996, Ukraine had returned all of its nuclear warheads to Russia in exchange for economic aid and security assurances, and Ukraine became a non-nuclear weapon state party to 1968 nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). last strategic nuclear delivery vehicle in Ukraine was eliminated in 2001 under 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). It took years of political maneuvering and diplomatic work, starting with Lisbon Protocol in 1992, to remove weapons and nuclear infrastructure from Ukraine.

mfa.gov - Statement by Mr. Serhii SHUTENKO, Director General for International Security of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, at UN First Committee general debate State-signatories to Memorandum «reaffirmed their obligation to refrain from threat or use of force against territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine, and that none of their weapons will ever be used against Ukraine except in self-defence or otherwise in accordance with Charter of United Nations». We share view that use of nuclear weapons is most serious threat that humankind faces nowadays. We believe that it is essential to strengthen international cooperation in order to reinforce existing international nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime. Even being affected by Russian military aggression and occupation of its territories in violation of NPT, Ukraine continues to regard Non-Proliferation Treaty as a key element of global nuclear non-proliferation regime. Ukraine consistently stands for reducing nuclear arsenals, cessation of modernization of nuclear weapons, and overall decrease of nuclear weapons’ role in military and strategic doctrines of states.

17.05.12 Rasmussen urged NATO allies to provide Ukraine with lethal weapons
FrontNews.eu Hromadske.ua UAzmi.com en.LB.ua Intmassmedia.com UKRinform.net KyivPost.com UAwire.org
"This will have an effect of deterrence against the armed forces supported by Russia," "I also advocate that the US grant Ukraine a special status, the so-called major non-NATO ally (MNNA). This will not provide security guarantees for Ukraine, but it will allow potential access to certain types of weapons. More importantly, it will become a powerful signal to Russia about Washington's obligations towards Ukraine," Rasmussen stressed.

RasmussenGlobal.com Trump deal-maker should invest in Ukraine: President Trump can address his Russia headache – and lay the groundwork for improved relations with Moscow – when he meets the Ukrainian President tomorrow, according to a former NATO Secretary General. Former NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen is calling on President Trump to invest time into his relations in Ukraine, which will create new...

With collapse of Soviet Union in 1991, a significant number of Russian Army assets remained in Ukranian territory, e.g. army units (over 700 000 soldiers), as well as significant numbers of weapons (6500 tanks, 7000 armoured vehicles, 7200 pc of artillery, 2500 tactical nuclear weapons). process known as Ukrainisation started with units located in Ukraine, especially those located in defence command of Kyiv, Odessa, and Carpathia. For most part this meant promotion of Ukrainian

according to Financial Times • Western allies must meet their legal obligations to protect country's integrity, Nevertheless, and despite protection promised to country by Budapest Memorandum, Ukraine is still bleeding from war in Donbas. In 1994, by signing Memorandum, Ukraine gave up its nuclear weapons in exchange for security assurances against threat or use of force against its territorial integrity or political independence. Yet international security paradigm has been dramatically influenced by Russia's illegal annexation of Crimea and its increasingly aggressive military posture globally. Ukraine's security is no longer guaranteed. Budapest Memorandum simply does not work.

16.11.24 • express.co.uk • Brussels urged to stockpile ATOMIC WEAPONS in global arms race with Putin:. BRUSSELS should begin stockpiling nuclear weapons on a massive scale to deter any further acts of aggression by Russian president Vladimir Putin in Eastern Europe, Poland said in an explosive development today. Brussels has looked on alarmed as Mr Putin has become increasingly bold in his military meddling, following up invasion of Ukraine with a campaign in Syria and constant probing of NATO defences in Baltic. But suggestion that EU should be handed nuclear weapons to counter threat will alarm many on continent, and is likely to receive short shrift from some European leaders

16.03.23 • politifact.com • Preparing for WAR? Russia revives Soviet-era train that can fire SIX nuclear missiles: RUSSIA has sparked fears Vladimir Putin is preparing for war after plans to carry out testing on a mothballed Soviet-era weapons train capable of firing six thermonuclear ballistic missiles were revealed.

ksk.edu.ee - RUSSIAN INFORMATION CAMPAIGN AGAINST UKRAINIAN STATE AND DEFENCE FORCE

17.01.18 iwp.org - Memo by Institute of World Policy - Is Neutrality a Solution for Ukraine?: Adoption of neutral status has no wide-spread support among Ukrainians. Surveys indicate that option of neutrality/non-alignment of Ukraine is supported by 25% of respondents. That’s why adoption of neutrality policy by Ukrainian authorities can instigate not only divisions in society, but domestic political crisis. This, in turn, will cause deterioration of security situation in Ukraine, rather than improvement. Non-alignment (hybrid status that implies restrictions inherent to neutrality but at same time doesn’t provide security guarantees associated with it) didn’t prevent Russian aggression. Adoption of neutral status would not result in end of Russian aggression and restoration of Ukraine’s territorial integrity. Neutral status means inability to receive external support for defense needs. Historical experience proves inefficiency of neutral status as a means of avoiding external aggression. Neutrality as a guarantee of non-aggression works only if neutral state is not in interests of a revisionist state.

16.03.23 politifact.com - Ted Cruz wrongly says Ukraine gave up nukes due to American security guarantees: "Well, Donald, in all likelihood, has no awareness of this, but with regard to Ukraine, United States has deep involvement," Cruz replied during March 21, 2016, interview. "Ukraine used to be third-largest nuclear country on face of Earth. Ukraine voluntarily gave up its nuclear weapons because United States of America came in and said if you hand over those nuclear weapons, we will ensure your territorial integrity from Russia. We made a commitment, and then Obama administration has broken its word."

Was Ukraine’s nuclear disarmament a blunder? By now, it is a well-known story: in early 1990s, Ukraine surrendered world’s third largest nuclear arsenal inherited from collapsed Soviet Union in exchange for security assurances from nuclear weapons states, which Russia glibly violated by annexing Crimea and fueling war in eastern Ukraine. Unquestionably, Russia’s breach of its security commitments to Ukraine has regrettable consequences for international nonproliferation regime and international security order more broadly. Yet, behind near-universal and well-deserved opprobrium of Russia’s aggression, story of Ukraine’s denuclearization has gelled, in Ukraine and elsewhere, into a facile narrative that omits important facts. According to this narrative, Ukrainian leaders were naïve, easily succumbed to pressure from West and Russia, and surrendered Ukraine’s mighty nuclear arsenal for nothing but empty promises. Importantly, with benefit of hindsight, this narrative implies that Ukraine’s nuclear disarmament was a stupid mistake, and had Ukraine not surrendered its nuclear weapons, Russia would have never invaded; for, as one of contributors to an earlier issue of this journal put it, it would now be a “much-feared nuclear power” (Umland 2016).

Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What at a Glance:

Quora.com - Return Nuclear Status:
In postwar history, annexation of a part of a sovereign country's territory to aggressor state has no precedent
.
Do Kazakhstan and Ukraine have legal right to return nuclear weapon program due to canceling Budapest memorandum assurance?

Explained: Ukraine’s Case Against RF at Hague. Analyzing evidence presented by Ukraine accusing of supporting “terrorism” Ukraine claims that Russia bears responsibility for these acts of “terrorism” in Donbas through its funding, outfitting, and support of separatist forces. Seven civilians died and more than thirty were injured after Russia-backed separatist forces carried out a bombardment of Kramatorsk on February 10, 2015. An investigation from International Partnership for Human Rights (IPHR) found that thirty-two projectiles were fired from four Smerch systems from separatist-controlled territory. Many of other claims made by Russian representatives are absurd when we consider available open source information, especially claim that Russia has not provided weapons or funds to separatist forces.

.com is an online publishing platform developed by Twitter:
Platform is an example of evolved social journalism , having a hybrid collection of amateur and professional people and publications, or exclusive blogs or publishers on Medium and is regularly regarded as a blog host. " Publications " on Medium are distributing hosts that carry articles and blog posts, like a newspaper or magazine .

UkraiNATO Create Army half a Million with an Independent Financial System.
In postwar history, annexation of a part of a sovereign country's territory to aggressor state has no precedent.

Referendum in Ukraine: a Return Nuclear Status!
Russia's aggression against Ukraine has led to RF international isolation, including NATO's suspension of all practical cooperation with Russia. Moscow's takeover of Crimea brazenly defied UN Charter, seizing a part of Ukraine's sovereign territory by military force.

CREATED NEW EURO ARMY:
Annexing a neighboring country’s territory by force, Putin overturned in a single stroke assumptions on which post-Cold War European order has rested.

Top 15 Most Popular Political Websites | ebizmba.com

- Dailykos.com/blog/EuroKrym -
REFERENDUM IN UKRAINE: A RETURN NUCLEAR STATUS
NEW EURO ARMY an INDEPENDENT FINANCIAL SYSTEM


CBS News.com - Making America's risk of a financial crisis great again
In decades prior to financial crisis, U.S. underwent a period of financial deregulation under assumption that market forces would prevent financial institutions from taking excessive risk. In particular, shadow banking system -- financial institutions that don’t operate as traditional banks -- was lightly regulated...


17.01.22 - Eastern European countries back NATO support against Russia
After Russia annexed Crimean Peninsula in Ukraine three years ago, Obama administration decided to send thousands of American soldiers to Eastern Europe to reinforce its NATO allies. U.S. Ambassador to Poland Paul Jones joins Alison Stewart to discuss ongoing security situation in Europe
.


17.01.22 - U.S. NATO troops surge in Europe after Russian aggression
Obama administration sent thousands of American troops to Europe through North Atlantic Treaty Organization in response to Russian aggression -- largest deployment since end of Cold War. It’s a move that has been denounced by Russia. NewsHour Weekend Special Correspondent Christopher Livesay reports from Germany and Poland about military mission.

17.03.09 Liveuamap.com Klimkin: "Normandy format worked all years. And I am grateful to France that it is part of these efforts."

17.03.08 joinfo.com Russia's arms supplies to Donbass: Ukraine’s Foreign Minister tells U.S. senators of Russia’s arms supplies to Donbas

icj-cij.org - International Convention for Suppression of Financing of Terrorism and of International Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Ukraine v. Russian Federation) - Request for indication of provisional measures - Court to hold public hearings from Monday 6 to Thursday 9 March 2017

Aljazeera.com Arabnews.com BBC.com Breitbart.com CSmonitor.com Dailymail.co.uk DW.com France24.com GlobalNews.ca Outlookindia.com Politico.eu Rappler.com Reuters.com Rferl.org ndtv.com Telegraph.co.uk TheNews.com upi.com UnicPress.com Washingtonpost.com Yahoo.com

Telegraph.co.uk - Ukraine takes ‘terrorism’ case against Russia to international court: Kiev has accused Russia of providing ‘financial, armed, and human’ support to separatist rebels in eastern Ukraine. Ukraine-Russia conflict comes before International Court of Justice: A 45-page complaint details alleged violations under two UN conventions. It accuses Russia of violating Terror Financing Treaty through its ongoing support of "illegally armed groups" in eastern Ukraine, and of alleged mistreatment of ethnic Tartar and Ukrainian populations, a violation of International Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination during 2014 annexation of Crimea ...

17.03.07 WSJ.com U.S. Shift on Russia Pleases Europe, Worries Moscow: WASHINGTON — President Donald Trump's election was greeted with elation in Russia and trepidation in Europe because of his public overtures to Russian President Vladimir Putin. But six weeks since start of Trump presidency have begun to reverse emotional tide.

But there is also “ITALternative
Mountains Shake - Billions Get:

- Italy to spend billions to rebuild quake-damaged towns - Blogspot.com
- l'Italia risponde alla Ue: "Gli scostamenti dovuti a sisma e migranti" - Repubblica.it
- lʼItalia chiede allʼEuropa 7 miliardi di euro soltanto per il sisma - TGcom24.mediaset.it

6

Настанет год – России черный год – Когда царей корона упадет, Забудет червь к ним прежнюю любовь,
И пища многих будет смерть и кровь; Когда детей, когда невинных жен Низвергнутый не защитит закон;
Когда чума от смрадных, мертвых тел Начнет бродить среди печальных сел, Чтобы платком из хижин вызывать;
И станет глад сей бедный край терзать, И зарево окрасит волны рек – В тот день явится мощный человек,
И ты его узнаешь – и поймешь, Зачем в руке его булатный нож. И горе для тебя! Твой плач, твой стон
Ему тогда покажется смешон; И будет все ужасно, мрачно в нем, Как плащ его с возвышенным челом.

9
ICJ - Ukraine v. Russian Federation