1. INTRODUCTION

European single currency was an important step towards final objective of political integration “very close, discussed for first time in Treaty of Rome in 1958 and subsequently in several other treaties. Former German Chancellor Helmut Kohl believes that economic benefits of euro have a secondary nature, emphasizing instead that; “Bitter experiences tested in this century, wars and dictatorships, taught us that project of unification is best insurance against a revival of national egoism, chauvinism and violent conflict
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There are other political motivations. For example, Ireland believes that euro is way that could blur her image as extended England, Italy wants to avoid becoming a political pariah, and France desperately wants to reduce influence of decisions taken by Germany about monetary policy.
Many enthusiastic German leaders hoped that monetary union will be “the chariot that pulls this “horse represented by full political union ...

Euro is single European countries adopted by 18 /28 EU countries. (though not UK). It is second largest reserve currency in world, after US Dollar. Euro notes and coins came into circulation on January 1st 2002. It was hoped that Euro would confer many benefits on member countries.
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6. Inward investment may increase from outside EU as firms take advantage of lower transaction costs within EU area. Some firms have said they prefer to invest within Eurozone area.
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EPw.in/search/site/ukrain

Euro's Salvation: Euro's salvation lies in a little less Europe in fi scal and regulatory policy, not more ...

Greece, Its International Creditors and Euro: Can Syriza government in Greece maintain an impossible triangle: (1) stay in power, (2) reverse austerity, and (3) stay in euro? It will all depend on whether European Union sees itself as a progressive ethical project of civilisation based on liberal market principles or as an anti-democratic imperialist project of international finance capital ...

Rethinking Ukraine Crisis: A false narrative about civil war in Ukraine prevails in West — that this is a war between Ukraine and Russia. This hostile positioning of Russia is in line with need to heighten tensions between North Atlantic Treaty Organization and Russia, a phenomenon that has its legacy in Cold War ...

Ukraine's Conflict and Resolution: West - European Union and United States - has shown no qualms in supporting a coup led by ultranationalists to achieve geopolitical aims in Ukraine. Russian actions in semi-autonomous region of Crimea may be illegal de jure, but seem driven by need to counter West's influence in country's "near abroad". As things stand, events portend to a far from ideal conclusion to Ukrainian crisis ...

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Преимущества введения евро

Наиболее очевидным преимуществом единой валюты для граждан Еврозоны является возможность беспрепятственно путешествовать. Но евро имеет и другие достоинства:
исключены колебания обменных курсов, что способствует стабильной торговле внутри Еврозоны
;
отсутствуют валютные риски, что позволяет более обоснованно планировать инвестиции;
снижаются операционные расходы (связанные с валютными и хеджевыми операциями, международными платежами и управлением многовалютными счетами);
становятся более прозрачными цены, поскольку потребителям разных стран легче их сравнивать, что усиливает конкуренцию;
огромный рынок единой валюты становится более привлекательным для иностранных инвесторов;
благодаря большому объему экономики и стабильности ЕЦБ может контролировать инфляцию при более низких процентных ставках.

Анализ преимуществ и недостатков перехода европейских стран на единую валюту.
Есипова О. В., Горохова А. В. Анализ преимуществ и недостатков перехода европейских стран на единую валюту Актуальные вопросы экономических наук: материалы III междунар. науч. конф.


- ecfr.eu European Council on Foreign Relations
Keeping up appearances: How Europe is supporting Ukraine’s transformation: By Gustav Gressel
There is also a regional divide in willingness of EU member states to assist Ukraine. While northern and eastern member states actively support Ukraine's transition, there is a lack of engagement by many western and southern member states. This imbalance undermines idea of European solidarity and cohesion, and ultimately effectiveness of EU as a political player. Italy, for example, provides less assistance to Ukraine than Slovenia. France, Spain, and Italy together provide less than any of individual Baltic states ...

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By Sara Flounders posted on July 12, 2017
Old preconceptions and terms must be challenged in order to have an accurate view of present international situation. Today’s Russian Federation is a vastly different state - socially, politically, economically and militarily - from Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of even 27 years ago. But US military expenditures are estimated at 36 percent to almost 50 percent of total global military expenditures. Russia's expenditures are 4 to 5 percent of global total. There is an insatiable drive to control Russia's great wealth by largest banks and corporations. Economic sanctions imposed by U.S. and EU at this time were specifically designed to hit Russia in its energy sector, where country is most vulnerable...

Explained: Ukraine’s Case Against RF at Hague. Analyzing evidence presented by Ukraine accusing of supporting “terrorism” Ukraine claims that Russia bears responsibility for these acts of “terrorism” in Donbas through its funding, outfitting, and support of separatist forces. Seven civilians died and more than thirty were injured after Russia-backed separatist forces carried out a bombardment of Kramatorsk on February 10, 2015. An investigation from International Partnership for Human Rights (IPHR) found that thirty-two projectiles were fired from four Smerch systems from separatist-controlled territory. Many of other claims made by Russian representatives are absurd when we consider available open source information, especially claim that Russia has not provided weapons or funds to separatist forces.

European Union External Action to Ukraine Council adopts temporary trade preferences “With today's decision, we are allowing more Ukrainian products to be exported to the EU. It is our duty to support Ukraine and strengthen our economic and political ties, also in the face of the ongoing conflict on its soil."

Quora.com - Return Nuclear Status:
In postwar history, annexation of a part of a sovereign country's territory to aggressor state has no precedent
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Do Kazakhstan and Ukraine have legal right to return nuclear weapon program due to canceling Budapest memorandum assurance?

.com is an online publishing platform developed by Twitter:
Platform is an example of evolved social journalism , having a hybrid collection of amateur and professional people and publications, or exclusive blogs or publishers on Medium and is regularly regarded as a blog host. " Publications " on Medium are distributing hosts that carry articles and blog posts, like a newspaper or magazine .

UkraiNATO Create Army half a Million with an Independent Financial System.
In postwar history, annexation of a part of a sovereign country's territory to aggressor state has no precedent.

Referendum in Ukraine: a Return Nuclear Status!
Russia's aggression against Ukraine has led to RF international isolation, including NATO's suspension of all practical cooperation with Russia. Moscow's takeover of Crimea brazenly defied UN Charter, seizing a part of Ukraine's sovereign territory by military force.

CREATED NEW EURO ARMY:
Annexing a neighboring country’s territory by force, Putin overturned in a single stroke assumptions on which post-Cold War European order has rested.

Top 15 Most Popular Political Websites | ebizmba.com
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- Dailykos.com/blog/EuroKrym -
REFERENDUM IN UKRAINE: A RETURN NUCLEAR STATUS
NEW EURO ARMY an INDEPENDENT FINANCIAL SYSTEM


CBS News.com - Making America's risk of a financial crisis great again
In decades prior to financial crisis, U.S. underwent a period of financial deregulation under assumption that market forces would prevent financial institutions from taking excessive risk. In particular, shadow banking system -- financial institutions that don’t operate as traditional banks -- was lightly regulated...


17.01.22 • Eastern European countries back NATO support against Russia
After Russia annexed Crimean Peninsula in Ukraine three years ago, Obama administration decided to send thousands of American soldiers to Eastern Europe to reinforce its NATO allies. U.S. Ambassador to Poland Paul Jones joins Alison Stewart to discuss ongoing security situation in Europe
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17.01.22 • U.S. NATO troops surge in Europe after Russian aggression
Obama administration sent thousands of American troops to Europe through North Atlantic Treaty Organization in response to Russian aggression -- largest deployment since end of Cold War. It’s a move that has been denounced by Russia. NewsHour Weekend Special Correspondent Christopher Livesay reports from Germany and Poland about military mission.

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17.02.15 • Independent.co.uk • Donald Trump accuses Russia of taking Crimea by force in attempt to distance himself from campaign allegations. White House spokesman Sean Spicer says Mr Trump expects Moscow to hand Crimea back. "Crimea was TAKEN by Russia during Obama Administration. Was Obama too soft on Russia?" Ukraine says referendum was a sham held at gunpoint after Russian troops illegally annexed peninsula, that Russia-friendly president Viktor Yanukovych was ousted by people power, and that Moscow should return Crimea ...

17.02.14 • Reuters.com • White House: Trump expects Russia to return Crimea to Ukraine • (Reporting by Ayesha Rascoe; Writing by Washington Newsroom; Editing by Eric Walsh), U.S. President Donald Trump made it clear he expects Russia to return Crimea to Ukraine and reduce violence in Ukraine, White House spokesman Sean Spicer said on Tuesday. "President Trump has made it very clear that he expects Russian government to de-escalate violence in Ukraine and return Crimea," Spicer said at a daily news briefing. "At same time, he fully expects to and wants to get along with Russia." Russia annexed Ukraine's Crimea in 2014.

17.02.07 • europeansanctions.com • EU & UK commitment to russia sanctions • February 7, 2017 by Michael O'Kane,
EU foreign ministers have reaffirmed their commitment to continuing sanctions against Russia until it complies with its obligations under Minsk peace agreements. G7 nations also took this position when they met in May last year. EU’s High Representative Federica Mogherini said that although she “cannot say where US administration stands on this…I can say where Europeans stand on this”. Setting out UK’s position, UK Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson stated that “The UK will be insisting that there is no case for relaxation of sanctions, every case for keeping up pressure on Russia”

17.02.05 • youtube.com • UN ambassador Nikki Haley declared that existing US sanctions would stay in place against Russia stemming from its annexation of peninsula of Crimea from Ukraine, amid renewed fighting in eastern part of country this week. "I consider it unconscionable that occasion of my first appearance here is one in which I must condemn aggressive actions of Russia," Haley said Thursday, February 2, 2017. "The dire situation in eastern Ukraine is one that demands clear and strong condemnation of Russian actions. "

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European Council Council of European UnionIllegal annexation of Crimea and Sevastopol:
17.06.19 EU extends sanctions by one year
EU sanctions against Russia over Ukraine crisis: In response to the illegal annexation of Crimea and deliberate destabilisation of a neighbouring sovereign country, the EU has imposed restrictive measures against the Russian Federation...

17.02.03 forbes.com What U.N. Ambassador Haley's Comment On Russia Really Means by Kenneth Rapoza, Sectoral sanctions impact Russia's most powerful companies and some of its most powerful oligarchs, from Sberbank to Rosneft, run by Vladimir Putin's close associate, Igor Sechin, a man known locally as "Darth Vader". Removal of those sanctions would likely imply that Russia removes counter-sanctions on European agribusiness. Sanctions are dependent on a Russian-Ukraine peace deal signed last year in Minsk, Belarus. Judging be recent fighting in eastern Ukraine, it appears this peace deal is not working for either side.

17.02.03 CNN.com • UN Ambassador Haley hits Russia hard on Ukraine • By Nicole Gaouette and Richard Roth, US ambassador to United Nations offered a strong condemnation of Russia in her first appearance at UN Security Council on Thursday, calling on Moscow to de-escalate violence in eastern Ukraine and saying that US sanctions against Moscow would remain in place until it withdraws from Crimea. "United States continues to condemn and call for an immediate end to Russian occupation of Crimea," said Nikki Haley, President Donald Trump's envoy to world body. "Crimea is a part of Ukraine. Our Crimea-related sanctions will remain in place until Russia returns control over peninsula to Ukraine." Haley was speaking at an emergency UN meeting about a sudden upsurge in violence in eastern Ukraine, where Russian-backed separatists have been fighting Ukrainian army. Her remarks were noTABLE for stark difference between her rhetoric and Trump's...

17.02.02 Politico.com • Haley: Russian sanctions will continue under Trump • by AIDAN QUIGLEY, U.S. ambassador to United Nations Nikki Haley said Thursday Trump administration will continue U.S. sanctions on Russia over its occupation of Crimea. “Crimea is a part of Ukraine,”

16.11.22 europeansanctions.com • Switzerland mirrors EU & US sanctions on Crimean parliamentarians

16.11.16 belsat.eu Hague Tribunal recognizes Crimean annexation as military conflict between Russia and Ukraine: International Criminal Court (ICC) in Hague has recognized annexation of Crimean peninsula as a military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, and a Russian occupation of Ukrainian territory. This is according to annual issued by Prosecutor of Hague-based International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda on November 14, 2016.

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But there is also “alternativEnglishBRexit for BRENTER

17.07.10 • DefenseNEWS.com NATO secretary general honors Ukraine, speaks out against Russia: “Russia has maintained its aggressive actions against Ukraine. But NATO and NATO allies stand on your side,” he said. “NATO allies do not, and will not, recognize Russia’s illegal and illegitimate annexation of Crimea.”

17.03.08 • VOAnews.com Topix.com Trump to Ask Merkel's Advice on Putin, Ukraine - US Officials "We are heartened by German government's determination to reach NATO's benchmark of committing 2 percent of GDP to defense by 2024,"the official said.

Ukraine’s suit of moral armor against Russia: Hot conflict in Ukraine has forced that country to seek legal help from UN's highest court. In a suit against Russia, it hopes to expose truth about Kremlin's role in killing of civilians in Ukraine. “Truth is stronger than arms!” Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko wrote on his Facebook page as court case opened before 16 judges in Hague.

16.12.21 InformNapalm Complements information of Military Prosecutor’s Office
16.11.27 • Censor.NET reported that Military Prosecutor’s Office of Ukraine has identified units and equipment of Russian Armed Forces that participated in occupation of Crimea. Prosecutor Ruslan Kravchenko provided this information to Censor.net.

1854 ) Nationalarchives.gov.uk - Many wars have been fought on grounds of strategic importance of a region; many wars have been fought over religious differences. Crimean War was result of both factors.
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marshallsociety.com - Economic benefits of war outweigh costs - By Alex Ho, Tonbridge Schoo, 2015
It is impossible to look past notable profits achieved by technology and arms industries as merely coincidental with surge of military activity in their respective countries. This Military-industrial Complex was even acknowledged by President Eisenhower in his farewell speech to nation, when he warned that United States government “must guard against acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by military-industrial complex”. Putting aside ethical debate surrounding morality of war, this special relationship between legislators and industries evidently has a directly proportional effect.

- Lack of Major Wars May Be Hurting Economic Growth - Tyler Cowen, 2014 - NYtimes.com
Continuing slowness of economic growth in high-income economies has prompted soul-searching among economists. They have looked to weak demand, rising inequality, Chinese competition, over-regulation, inadequate infrastructure and an exhaustion of new technological ideas as possible culprits.

- War and Economy - econ.economicshelp.org
  One of most popular misconceptions is that wars cause recessions. Wars may be unjust, they may lead to huge government borrowing / deficits and national debts. But, wars themselves don't directly cause recession. In fact military spending is often a cause of rapid economic growth. Some suggest that one motive for wars and military spending is maintenance of full employment / higher economic growth. (for Example, pressure for US involvement in Korea and Vietnam has been placed partly on huge military industrial complex that existed at end of Second World War. "We must guard against acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by military-industrial complex." ~Dwight D. Eisenhower (Jan 1961)

- Economic Impact of War - econ.economicshelp.org

  It is ironic that, from a certain perspective, war can be beneficial for an economy.
War leads to higher government spending, higher employment and can therefore provide a boost to domestic demand, economic growth and help reduce unemployment. However, this boost to domestic demand doesn’t have to come from military spending. But, war is often a very good excuse for government to borrow much more than it could do in peace time. UK national debt is currently 60% and everyone thinks we need to cut spending and reduce level of debt. But, in war time, UK national debt has often risen above 150% of GDP. (in war, there is often a patriotic fervour to buy ‘war bonds’ – A patriotic fervour which wouldn’t be there in current climate.

Welcome to - Quora - is built by people like you who write answers to share their knowledge.

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But there is also “ITALternative
Mountains Shake - Billions Get:

- Italy to spend billions to rebuild quake-damaged towns - Blogspot.com
- l'Italia risponde alla Ue: "Gli scostamenti dovuti a sisma e migranti" - Repubblica.it
- lʼItalia chiede allʼEuropa 7 miliardi di euro soltanto per il sisma - TGcom24.mediaset.it

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Настанет год – России черный год – Когда царей корона упадет, Забудет червь к ним прежнюю любовь,
И пища многих будет смерть и кровь; Когда детей, когда невинных жен Низвергнутый не защитит закон;
Когда чума от смрадных, мертвых тел Начнет бродить среди печальных сел, Чтобы платком из хижин вызывать;
И станет глад сей бедный край терзать, И зарево окрасит волны рек – В тот день явится мощный человек,
И ты его узнаешь – и поймешь, Зачем в руке его булатный нож. И горе для тебя! Твой плач, твой стон
Ему тогда покажется смешон; И будет все ужасно, мрачно в нем, Как плащ его с возвышенным челом.

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